Signs are everywhere.
Signs are formed through the society that creates them.
Signs are always produced and consumed in the context of a specific society.
Societies have two basic sources of signing: the first source is natural, while the second is conventional.
Signs are often though: to be composed of two inseparable elements: the signifier and the signified.
Many of the signs we use to communicate are arbitrary in the sense that they are not immediately transparent to us.
When one thing is closely associated with- or directly related to- another, it can be substituted for it so as to create meaning.
When one thing is substituted for another in a piece of communication we call it a metonym.